Joshua’ Bowen & Megan Lewis, “Learn to Read Ancient Sumerian”, 2020, Part Two (2) was the topic of an earlier blog post.
In Sumerian, the name Gilgamesh is: 𒀭𒄑𒉋𒂵𒎌 (dgilgameš₂) this numerical pattern is: 4-3-11-13-5 “impressions”.
Here I present: Sîn-lēqi-unninni 𒁹𒀭𒌍𒋾𒀀𒅆, “Gilgamesh: Voyage to Utnapishtim”, Second Millennium BC, Andrew George (translator) which was eleven (11) clay-tablets of the Mesopotamian epic.
George Smith (1840-1876) English Assyriologist was the first to translate “Gilgamesh: Voyage to Utnapishtim”, in 1872.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
The book consists of 228 pages, divided into five (5) chapters listed BELOW.
Chapter 1. “Standard Version of the Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic”.
Chapter 2. “Babylonian Texts of the Early Second Millennium BC”.
Chapter 3. “Babylonian Texts of the Late Second Millennium BC, from sites in Babylonia”.
Chapter 4. “Babylonian Texts of the Late Second Millennium BC, from outside Babylonia”.
Chapter 5. “The Sumerian Poems of Gilgamesh”.
Here I presented: Andrew George (translator), “Gilgamesh: Voyage to Utnapishtim”, Second Millennium BC, which was eleven (11) clay-tablets of the Mesopotamian epic.
Gilgamesh, king of Uruk.
Enkidu, friend of Gilgamesh.
Utnapishtim, Babylonian Noah.
Gilgamesh (protaganist) is the tyrant king of Uruk.
The gods send Enkidu (foil-character) to earth to force Gilgamesh to change his evil ways. Enkidu and Gilgamesh become best friends.
Humbala (antagonist), a demon get into a battle with the pair of Gilgamesh & Enkidu. Humbala is killed by the pair; however, later Enkidu dies.
Gilgamesh dishearten by the death of friend Enkidu, goes on a search for his own immortality.
Gilgamesh takes a boat journey across the sea and through the “Waters of Death” to Utnapishtim.
Utnapishtim tells Gilgamesh the story of the flood – how the gods met in council and decided to destroy humankind.
Gilgamesh, after passage through darkness emerges in a garden by the sea. There Gilgamesh meets Siduri (love interest of Gilgamesh). Siduri warns Gilganesh that seeking immortality is futile; and, that he must be satisfied with the pleasures of this world.
The “time chart” from 3,400 BC to 75 AD in the book is shown BELOW.
Cuneiform writing is the end of the Oral Prehistory in 3,400 BC; but, cuneiform writing is not used . Writing is a 3,400 BC invention of the cuneiform script; and, the last cuneiform text appeared in 75 AD (see “time chart” ABOVE).
A comparison of the Biblical book of “Genesis” and “Gilgamesh” is shown ABOVE . The similarities between Noah of “Genesis”;and ,Utnapishtim of “Gilgamesh are obvious.
Mikhail Bakhtin (1895-1975), “Epic and Novel” in “Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays by M. M. Bakhtin”, year 1975, pages 3-40.
The “Gilgamesh” is among the earliest epics written. Other “epics” include:
1. Homer ( Ὅμηρος ), “The Odyssey: The Voyage of Odysseus ( Ὀδύσσεια )“, 9th ~ 8th century BC which was a Greek epic.
2. Apollonius Rhodius Ἀπολλώνιος Ῥόδιος (born 295 BC), “Argonautica: The Voyage of the Argo”, which also was a Greek epic.
3. Vergil (Publius Vergilius Maro) (70 ~ 19 BC), “The Aeneid: The Voyage of Aeneas”, which was a Latin epic.
Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, “Palace of Illusion”, 2018 has the quotation that follows. “In a time when the lives of men and gods still interacted, “the epic” weaves myth, history, religion, science, philosophy, superstition, and statecraft into its innumerable stories-within-stories to create a rich and teeming world filled with psychological complexity.”