The Singer-Nicolson model in biochemistry is second only to the Watson-Crick model in importance. The cell organelles of the two models: 1. cell membranes, and 2. genetic chromosomes are fundamental cellular structures. In the diagram above, proteins are large objects in the lipid fluid. The years 1953 and 1972 gave biochemistry these new idea models. Continue reading S. Singer & G. Nicolson, “The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Structure of Cell Membranes”, SCIENCE, 1972, volume 175, pages 720-731.