- Michael A. LaCombe, “Political Gastronomy: Food and Authority in the English Atlantic World”, 2012 was the topic of an earlier blog post.
Here I present: Joel Waldfogel, “Dining Out as Cultural Trade”, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2019.
This writing was restaurant dining out paper presented in June 2019; and, just before the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
- The most important restaurant cuisines in the World are listed above & below.
- Italian (pizza).
- Japanese (sushi).
- Chinese (chopsticks).
- Indian (eating with hands).
- American (fast food).
- The table below is in chronological order; and, institution’s significant in the history of Writing, Printing and Publishing are shown in the table.
- Item #O. “Thomas Church” India founded 63 AD; and, item #2. “Nalanda University” India founded 427 AD. These two institutions are the first Christian church, and the most ancient University. Item #1. “White Horse Temple” China founded 68 AD first printed paper books. Item #3. “Qinglong Temple” China first Publishing House and Library of printed literature on Buddhism. Item #4. “Daigakuryo University “ associated with Kukai, who created the Japanese writing script. Item #5. “Bologna University” Italy founded 1088 is the oldest college in the World.
- Here I presented: Joel Waldfogel, “Dining Out as Cultural Trade”, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2019.
- In the United States the most popular ethnic cuisines are Chinese (26 states & 1 DC), Mexican (22 states), and Thai (2 states: Alaska & Hawaii). The graphic ABOVE, shows the regional preferences in the United States of ethnic cuisines.
- Joel Waldfogel, “Dining Out as Cultural Trade”, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2019 was a book on global aspects of dining out. However, I presented in this blog post that Writing, Printing & Publishing cultures of Italy, India, China and Japan explain their cuisines presence in other parts of the World. The timing of this paper before the COVID-19 pandemic was important in the influence on cuisine culture trade.
- India has an eating tradition, based on five ancient elements, (shown ABOVE) with each digit of the right hand representing an ancient element. Arabia also has the same tradition of eating with hands; and, the Arabs have the same reasoning of ancient elements:
- Land (ring finger) Prithvi.
- Water (little finger) Jal.
- Air (index finger) Vayu.
- Fire (thumb) Agni.
- Space (middle finger) Akasha.
Hinduism is opposed to eating beef; and, Islam is opposed to eating pork. However, both Muslim and Hindu stick to tradition of eating food with hands; and, the sacred and mythical reasoning from epic mythology is Arabia and India.
- Land पृथिवी Prithvi (ring finger).
- Water जल Jal (little finger).
- Air वायु Vaayu (index finger).
- Fire अग्नि Agni (thumb).
- Space आकाश Akasha (middle finger).
This is a Sphere model of Periodicity of the Universe on the fingers.
Exosphere (space), Atmosphere (air), Hydrosphere (water), Lithosphere (land) & Thermodynamics (fire) are modern technical terms for this ancient idea. This is the classic Geocentric Viewpoint; and, Biochemical periodicity as the conceptual view of eating.
Marcus Garvius Apicius, “Apicius: Cookery and Dining in Imperial Rome”, First century AD was the topic of an earlier blog post.