Here I present: Hasmukh Dhirajlal Sankalia हंसमुख धीरजलाल सांकलिया , “University of Nalanda” नालन्दा महाविहार , 1929 which was an archeology book on the origins of universities. The book is the excavation records in Bihar, India.
The book consists of thirteen (13) chapters listed BELOW.
Chapter #. “Chapter Title”.
- “The Idea of a University.”
- “The Background of the Nalanda University: Transformation of Sangharamas into Temples of Learning.”
- “The Rise of the University and its Growth under Kings of Various Dynasties.”
- “Studies of Nalanda.”
- “Famous Pandits of Nalanda.”
- “Ritualism of Nalanda Buddhism.”
- “Student Life.”
- “Contemporary Universities.”
- “Nalanda – An International University.”
- “End of Nalanda.”
- “Nalanda Today.”
- “The Art and Architecture of Nalanda as Revealed from its Finds.”
Academy & Lyceum.
Western university origins are usually traced to Plato and Aristotle in Athens, Greece. The Greek Socrates (470 BC – 399 BC) was the teacher of Plato (428 BC – 348 BC).
Plato’s Academy is known as the world’s first Western university; and, it was founded in 387 BC.
Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC), was a student at Plato’s Academy, and in 335 BC, set up his own university, Aristotle’s Lyceum.
Plato had sought to educate by teaching; where as, Aristotle wished in addition to train by research.
Taxila तक्षशिला महाविहार University, of the Punjab was founded in 600 BC, and ended in 500 AD.
University of Nalanda नालन्दा महाविहार was founded 427 AD, and ended in 1202 AD.
Siddhartha Gautama गौतम बुद्ध (563 BC – 483 BC) as The Buddha is the source of the teachings at both Taxila and Nalanda universities.
Here I presented: Hasmukh Dhirajlal Sankalia हंसमुख धीरजलाल सांकलिया , “University of Nalanda” नालन्दा महाविहार , 1929 which was an archeology book.
Taxila & Nalanda.
玄奘 Xuanzang (602-664 AD), “The Great Tang Dynasty Record of the Western Regions” also was used by the archeologists to locate Nalanda University.
Taxila University (600 BC – 500 AD) of Punjab was the earliest universities in the entire world. Nalanda University (427 AD – 1202 AD) was extension of the Buddhist universities teaching up to the time of Marco Polo (1254-1324).
Pushpagiri University founded 200 BC was an Indian university; and, Pushpagiri and Taxila universities existed at the same time as Plato’s Academy and Aristotle’s Lyceum.
Chanakya चाणक्य (375 BC – 283 BC) scholar at Taxila University instructions of Chandragupta Maurya, caused his grandson, Ashoka, to found Buddhism as the religion of the Mauryan Empire.
Hasmukh Dhirajlal Sankalia हंसमुख धीरजलाल सांकलिया was a renowned archeologists in India; and, I recommend this record of the excavations in Bihar, India of Nalanda University.